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Word in focus

чувак  [choo-VAK] (masculine noun) – dude, man, guy

А кто этот чувак? Ты его раньше здесь видел? = Who is that guy? Have you seen him here before?

У тебя что, чувак, совсем крыша поехала? =  Dude, are you nuts?

The instrumental case: nouns




The instrumental case (творительный падеж) is used:


1) When something is used as a tool:

Нужно есть вилкой и ножом. = You should eat with a fork and a knife.

Он видел это своими глазами. = He saw it with his own eyes.

Unlike in English, you don't need the preposition "с" = with in this type of sentences.


2) After certain prepositions. The most common ones are "с", "за", "перед", "между", "над", "под":

Я ходил туда с другом. = I went there with a friend.

Перед школой есть автобусная остановка. = There's a bus stop in front of the school.


3) In the expression "to work as":

Он работает инженером. = He works as an engineer.


4) After the verbs "to be" and "to become":

Я хочу быть врачом. = I want to be a doctor.

Она стала мамой. = She's become a mom.


Please, note that these are most common uses of the instrumental case and that this list is non-exhaustive.




The choice of the ending depends if the noun is masculine, feminine, neuter or plural.


The endings for masculine nouns in the Instrumental Case are "ом" or "ем":

- "ем" if the noun ends in "ь" or "й": Сергей - с СергеЕМ

- "ом" for all the other masculine nouns: человек - с человекОМ


Neuter nouns behave like masculine nouns.


The endings for feminine nouns are "ой" or "ей":

подруга - с подругОЙ

продавщица - с продавщицЕЙ


The endings for plural nouns are "ами" or "ями":

студенты - со студентАМИ

друзья - с друзьЯМИ

Practice: try this exercise